What Are The Three Most Essential Elements Of Descriptive Epidemiology?

What are the 3 major types of epidemiologic studies?

Three major types of epidemiologic studies are cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies (study designs are discussed in more detail in IOM, 2000).

A cohort, or longitudinal, study follows a defined group over time..

What are three uses for descriptive epidemiologic studies?

Monitoring and reporting on the health status and health related behaviors in populations. Identifying emerging health problems. Alerting us to potential threats from bioterrorism. Establishing public health priorities for a population.

What is an example of descriptive epidemiology?

The time variable is concerned with variation in the occurrence of disease in time and its seasonality or periodicity. A hypothetical example of a descriptive epidemiologic study is the investigation of a group of workers in a factory who have what is suspected of being environmentally acquired lupus.

Which is the most powerful epidemiological study?

Randomized, controlled clinical trials are the most powerful designs possible in medical research, but they are often expensive and time-consuming.

What are the four methods of epidemiology?

Epidemiological studies generally fall into four broad categories:cross-sectional studies.case-control studies.cohort studies.intervention studies.

What is the strongest study design?

A well-designed randomized controlled trial, where feasible, is generally the strongest study design for evaluating an intervention’s effectiveness.

How is epidemiology used?

Epidemiology is a discipline that has a crucial role in describing health status, identifying risk factors, and analyzing relationships between health and different hazardous agents. The classical epidemiological triangle of host-agent-environment describes how individuals become ill.

Which study design is best for rare diseases?

Case-control studies are particularly efficient for rare diseases because they begin by identifying a sufficient number of diseased people (or people have some “outcome” of interest) to enable you to do an analysis that tests associations.

What are the elements of epidemiology?

Epidemiology is the study (scientific, systematic, data-driven) of the distribution (frequency, pattern) and determinants (causes, risk factors) of health-related states and events (not just diseases) in specified populations (patient is community, individuals viewed collectively), and the application of (since …

What is an example of an epidemiological study?

Epidemiological studies measure the risk of illness or death in an exposed population compared to that risk in an identical, unexposed population (for example, a population the same age, sex, race and social status as the exposed population).

What are descriptive epidemiological methods?

Descriptive epidemiological methods characterize health events, health problems, and exposures in terms of person, place, time, and variability.

What are the two types of epidemiology?

Epidemiologic studies fall into two categories: experimental and observational.

What are the types of descriptive epidemiological studies?

TYPES OF DESCRIPTIVE STUDIESCase reports and case series. A case report refers to the description of a patient with an unusual disease or with simultaneous occurrence of more than one condition. … Cross-sectional studies. … Ecological studies.

Why are epidemiological studies used?

Epidemiologic studies can be used for many reasons, commonly to estimate the frequency of a disease and find associations suggesting potential causes of a disease. To achieve these goals, measures of disease (incidence) or death (mortality) are made within population groups.

What is the best definition for epidemiology?

By definition, epidemiology is the study (scientific, systematic, and data-driven) of the distribution (frequency, pattern) and determinants (causes, risk factors) of health-related states and events (not just diseases) in specified populations (neighborhood, school, city, state, country, global).